Modern nomenclature for such recorders refers to the instruments' relationship to the other members of consort, rather than their absolute pitch, which may vary. The recorder is supported by the lips, which loosely seal around the beak of the instrument, the thumb of the lower hand, and, depending on the note fingered, by the other fingers and the upper thumb. Far more recorders survive from the Renaissance than from the Middle Ages. These instruments are not typically regarded as recorders, however Tarasov has argued for their inclusion in the family. In this period, the instrument had six finger holes and single thumb hole, and had as many as six keys. These include a 14th-century fragment of a headjoint excavated in Esslingen, Germany ("Esslingen fragment"); a birch instrument dated to the second half of the 14th century unearthed in Tartu, Estonia ("Tartu recorder"); and a fruitwood instrument dated to the 15th century, found in Elbląg, Poland ("Elbląg recorder"). They also included novel solutions to the problem of condensation: most commonly, a sea sponge was placed inside the wind chamber (the conical chamber above the windway) to soak up moisture, while novel solutions such as the insertion of a thin wooden wedge into the windway, the drilling of little holes in the side of the block to drain condensation and a complex system for draining condensation through a hollowed out block developed, were also developed. In the present day, cognates of the word "flute," when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the recorder, the modern concert flute, or other non-western flutes. Goedgekeurde derde partijen gebruiken deze tools voor onze weergave van advertenties. ○ means to uncover the hole. Until the mid 18th century, musical scores written in Italian refer to the instrument as flauto, whereas the transverse instrument was called flauto traverso. This type of recorder is described by Praetorius in De Organographia (1619). As conventions and instruments vary, especially for larger and more uncommon instruments, it is often practical to state the recorder's lowest note along with its name to avoid confusion. For example, the fingering 0123 has a slightly sharper forked variant 012 4567. The first two treatises of the 16th century show recorders that differ from the surviving instruments dating to the century: these are Sebastian Virdung's (b. Voor het berekenen van de totale sterrenbeoordeling en de procentuele verdeling per ster gebruiken we geen gewoon gemiddelde. The player is able to control the speed and turbulence of the airstream using the diaphragm and vocal tract. In the latter half of the 20th century, historically informed performance practice was on the rise and recorder makers increasingly sought to imitate the sound and character of antiques. Mail uw opmerking over of aanvulling op dit artikel naar email@example.com.  The last occurrences of the recorder in art music are apparently by Carl Maria von Weber in Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn (1801) and Kleiner Tusch (1806).  Another area is the development of instruments with a greater dynamic range and more powerful bottom notes. Recorders were also played with other instruments, especially in England, where it was called a mixed consort or "broken consort". Potential sizes include: great bass in F2; bass in B♭2 or C3; basset in F3 or G3; tenor in C4 or D4; alto in F4, G4 or A4; and soprano in C5 or D5.. For more on this question, see "Other duct flutes". Fingerings with a covered bell extend the recorder's chromatic playable range above and below the nominal fingered range. Ongeveer 15 jaar geleden is de Blokfluitgroep Flauto Dolce in Amsterdam opgericht door Willem Bremer. 1465?) Additionally, he proposed cutting the recorder between the beak and the first finger hole to allow for a kind of tuning slide to raise or lower its pitch, similar to the Baroque practice of adjusting a recorder's pitch by "pulling out" the top joint of the recorder. Since the 15th century, a variety of sizes of recorder have been documented, but a consistent terminology and notation for the different sizes was not formulated until the 20th century. Flauto Dolce. Nonetheless, the recorder was considered primarily an instrument of historical interest. The introduction of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of French professionals in 1673 popularized the French name for the instrument, "flute douce", or simply "flute", a name previously reserved for the transverse instrument. "The Recorder 1800–1905". He is the first to differentiate between the amount of the breath (full, shallow, or moderate) and the force (relaxed or slow, intense, and the median between them) as well as the different amount of air required for each instrument, and describes a trill or vibrato called a vox tremula in which "a tremulous quality in the breath" is combined with a trilling of the fingers to vary the interval from anything between a major third and a diesis. Notable historical makers include the Rafi, Schnitzer and Bassano families in the renaissance; Stanesby (Jr. and Sr.), J.C. and J. Denner, Hotteterre, Bressan, Haka, Heitz, Rippert, Rottenburgh, Steenbergen and Terton. The instrument has four holes finger-holes and a thumb hole for each hand. Recorder player Sophie Westbrooke was a finalist in the 2014 competition.. Marvin has designed a flauto doppio based on the Oxford instrument, scaled to play at F4 and C5. English flageolets that may qualify as recorders are of two types: those early instruments, called "English flageolets," which were actually recorders, and 19th century instruments with seven finger holes and a thumb hole. In standard modern practice, the right hand is the lower hand, while the left hand is the upper hand, although this was not standardized before the modern revival of the recorder. Especially notable is Fred Morgan's much copied "Ganassi" model, based loosely on an instrument in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches museum (inventory number SAM 135), was designed to use the fingerings for the highest notes in Ganassi's tables in Fontegara. For the performance of baroque music, A=415 Hz is the de facto standard, while pre-Baroque music is often performed at A=440 Hz or A=466 Hz. , Starting in the Middle Ages, angels have frequently been depicted playing one or more recorders, often grouped around the Virgin, and in several notable paintings trios of angels play recorders. In the 2012 Charlotte Barbour-Condini became the first recorder player to reach the final of the biennial BBC Young Musician of the Year competition. Notable composers for the instrument include Heberle and Krähmer, and Tarasov notes that piano works by Beethoven were arranged for csakan and guitar (Beethoven is reported to have owned a walking-stick csakan). Keys also allow the design of longer instruments with larger tone holes. Soloists such as Piers Adams, Dan Laurin and Dorothee Oberlinger, Michala Petri, Maurice Steger.  Invented by Carl Dolmetsch in 1957, he first used the bell-key system publicly in 1958. Heinrich Oskar Schlosser (1875–1947) made instruments sold by the firm of Moeck in Celle and helped to design their Tuju series of recorders. Pitches are produced on the recorder by covering the holes while blowing into the instrument. Ons systeem voor betalingsbeveiliging codeert jouw gegevens tijdens een transactie.  Some Italian paintings from the 16th-century show aristocracy of both sexes playing the recorder, however many gentlemen found it unbecoming to play because it uses the mouth, preferring the lute and later the viol. As in the instrument's earliest history, questions of the instrument's quiddity are at the forefront of modern debate. Er zijn nog een paar leden uit de vroegste beginperiode, zoals Cor en Marianne (beiden alt) en Rinus en Wil (beiden tenor). The csakan's repertoire has not yet been fully explored. Accounts of Krähmer's playing, which report his "diminishing and swelling the notes, up to an almost unbelievable loudness" imply a developed technique using shading and alternate fingerings, far beyond a purely amateur culture of house music. Like the recorder, the upper thumb hole is used as an octaving vent. In practice, however, the uncovering of the holes is not strictly sequential, and the half covering or uncovering of holes is an essential part of recorder technique. ), The instrument name "recorder" derives from the Latin recordārī (to call to mind, remember, recollect), by way of Middle French recorder (before 1349; to remember, to learn by heart, repeat, relate, recite, play music) and its derivative MFr recordeur (c.1395; one who retells, a minstrel). In the second movement, breaking of beaming in the fiauto parts, markings of f and p, the fermata over the final double bar of the first movement, and the 21 bars of rest at the beginning of the third have led some musicologists to argue that Bach intended the use of "echo flutes" distinct from normal recorders in the second movement in particular. Because both hands are typically engaged in holding the recorder or covering the finger holes, the covering of the bell is normally achieved by bringing the end of the recorder in contact with the leg or knee, typically achieved through a combination of bending of the torso and/or raising of the knee. Modern recorder players have taken up the practice of playing instrumental music from the period, perhaps anachronistically, such as the monophonic estampies from the Chansonnier du Roi (13th), Add MS 29987 (14th or 15th), or the Codex Faenza (15th), and have arranged keyboard music, such as the estampies from the Robertsbridge codex (14th), or the vocal works of composers such as Guillaume de Machaut and Johannes Ciconia for recorder ensembles. Gerolamo Cardano's De Musica was written around 1546, but not published until 1663 when it was published along with other works by Cardan, who was an eminent philosopher, mathematician and physician as well as a keen amateur recorder player who learned from a professional teacher, Leo Oglonus, as a child in Milan. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Stanesby : Tenor Recorder ("The True Concert Flute")", "Catalogue of Recorder Repertoire: Advanced search", "Recorder Concerto in F major (Sammartini, Giuseppe)", "6 Concertos in 7 Parts, Op.3 (Babell, William)", "FAQs about Recorders – What is the Block of a Recorder Made Of? It is, however, incorrect to assume that mastery is similarly easy—like any other instrument, the recorder requires study to play well and in tune, and significant study to play at an advanced or professional level. To partially uncover a covered hole, the player may slide the finger off the hole, bend or roll the finger away from the hole, gently lift the finger from the hole, or a combination of these. The word "flageolet" has been used since the 16th century to refer to small duct flutes, and the instrument is sometimes designated using general terms such as flautino and flauto piccolo, complicating identification of its earliest form. Volume II, De Organographia (1619) is of particular interest for its description of no fewer than eight sizes of recorder (klein Flötlein or exilent in G5, discant in C5 or D5, alt in G4, tenor in C4, basset in F3, bass in B♭2, and grossbass in F2) as well as the four-holed gar kleine Plockflötlein. In the 16th century, the recorder saw important developments in its structure. Item kan niet op de lijst worden gezet. Generally speaking, the partial opening of covered fingerholes raises the pitch of the sounding note while the partial closure of open fingerholes lowers the pitch. As a rule of thumb, the tessitura of a baroque recorder lies approximately one octave above the tessitura of the human voice type after which it is named. Ongeveer 15 jaar geleden is de Blokfluitgroep Flauto Dolce in Amsterdam opgericht door Willem Bremer. In some cases, the two flutes are evidently disjoint, separate flutes of similar make, played angled away from each other, one pipe in each hand. On an elementary level, breath pressure and fingerings must accord with each other to provide an in-tune pitch. He prefers fleute d'Italien or the Italian flauto. The French innovations were taken to London by Pierre Bressan, a set of whose instruments survive in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, as do other examples in various American, European and Japanese museums and private collections. Andrew Mayes: "Carl Dolmetsch and the Recorder Repertoire of the 20th Century", Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003. The primary function of the thumbhole is to serve as an octaving vent. As in organ flue pipes, the sounding pitch of duct type whistles is affected by the velocity of the air stream as it impinges upon the labium. The recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is generally reverse conical (i.e.  Recorder parts in the Baroque were typically notated using the treble clef, although they may also be notated in French violin clef (G clef on the bottom line of the staff). We zijn nog steeds groter dan het ensemble The Royal Wind Music! For the first and last movements of the concerto, two opinions predominate: first, that both recorder parts should be played on alto recorders in F4; and second, that the first part should be played on an alto recorder in G and the second part on an alto in F. Tushaar Power has argued for the alto in G4 on the basis that Bach uses the high F#6, which can be easily played on an alto in G4, but not the low F4, a note not playable on the alto in G4. These recorders shared little in common with antiques, with large straight windways, anachronistically pitched consorts, modified fingering systems and other innovations. Unfortunately, Ganassi gives only a few ornamented examples with little context for their use. 1806–16). Other recorders by the Rafi family survive in Northern Europe, notably a pair in Brussels. When it is leaked, the first mode of vibration of the air column becomes unstable: i.e., the register changes. Air speed can also be used to influence the number of pressure nodes in a process called over blowing. In recorders, as in all woodwind instruments, the air column inside the instrument behaves like a vibrating string, to use a musical analogy, and has multiple modes of vibration. The sizes most commonly in use today are the soprano (aka "descant", lowest note C5), alto (aka "treble", lowest note F4), tenor (lowest note C4) and bass (lowest note F3). Most wind bands consisted of players playing sackbutts, shawms, and other loud instruments doubling on recorder.  Consorts of recorders are often referred to using the terminology of organ registers: 8′ (8 foot) pitch referring to a consort sounding as written, 4′ pitch a consort sounding an octave above written, and 16′ a consort sounding an octave below written. Also of note are the works of Johann Christoph Schultze (c. 1733–1813), who wrote two concertos for the instrument, one in G major and another in B♭ major, written around 1740. Famously, Henry VIII of England was an avid player of the recorder, and at his death in 1547 an inventory of his possessions included 76 recorders in consorts of various sizes and materials. In either case, more ergonomically placed keys can be used to cover the tone holes. A second, structurally different instrument ("Göttingen recorder") was discovered in 1987 in an archaeological excavation of the latrine of a medieval house in Göttingen, Germany. The classification of these instruments is primarily complicated by the fact that the seventh hole produces a semitone instead of a tone. Unfortunately, however, this makes many other chromatic notes too out of tune to be usable. The first documented appearance of the csakan was at a concert in Budapest on February 18, 1807 in a performance by its billed inventor, Anton Heberle (fl. (These little shepherds fluting all day long ... on these small recorders, on flutes. As a result, he has suggested that these flutes should be described as improved flageolets, and has proposed the condition that true recorders produce a tone (rather than a semitone) when the seventh finger is lifted.. Coordinating the two is essential to playing the recorder in tune and with a variety of dynamics and timbres. In Germanic countries, the equivalent of the same term, Quartflöte, was applied both to the tenor in C4, the interval being measured down from the alto in F4, and to a recorder in C5 (soprano), the interval of a fourth apparently being measured up from an alto in G4. Probeer het opnieuw. In plaats daarvan houdt ons systeem rekening met zaken als hoe recent een recensie is en of de recensent het item op Amazon heeft gekocht. The air stream is affected by the shaping of the surfaces in the head of the recorder (the "voicing"), and the way the player blows air into the windway. John Mansfield Thomson, Anthony Rowland-Jones (editors): Jacqueline Sorel: Renaissance Recorders after Ganassi: Jacqueline Sorel, Baroque Alto Recorder after Stanesby, Sr, Waitzman, Daniel: "The Decline of the Recorder in the 18th Century". As the area was not disturbed until the modern excavation, the recorder has been dated to the period of occupation of the castle. Although the recorder achieved a greater level of standardization in the Baroque than in previous periods, indeed it is the first period in which there was a "standard" size of recorder, ambiguous nomenclature and uncertain organological evidence have led to controversy regarding which instruments should be used in some "flute" parts from the period. A complementary view recently advanced by Nikolaj Tarasov is that the recorder, rather than totally disappearing, evolved in similar ways to other wind instruments through the addition of keys and other devices, and remained in use throughout the 19th century, with its direct descendant's popularity overlapping with the late 19th and early 20th century recorder revival. They are found in almost every musical tradition around the world. With the thumb hole and the first three finger holes covered, the reconstruction produces a pitch ca. Ganassi uses three basic kinds of syllables te che, te re, and le re and also varies the vowel used with the syllable, suggesting the effect of mouth shape on the sound of the recorder. Historically, such recorders did not exist as a distinct type, and the fingerings given by Ganassi were those of a skilled player particularly familiar with his instruments.  These pitch standards allow recorder players to collaborate with other instrumentalists at a pitch other than A=440 Hz. Unusually, the finger holes taper conically outwards, the opposite of the undercutting found in Baroque recorders. As Morgan knew, these notes were not in standard use; indeed Ganassi uses them in only a few of the hundreds of diminutions contained in Fontegara. In most recorders, this is required for the playing of every note higher than a ninth above the lowest note. In the 21st century, a number of other instruments and fragments dated to the medieval period have come to light. It is fruitwood in one piece with turnings, measuring about 256 mm (10.1 in) long. The pitches A=415 Hz and A=466 Hz, a semitone lower and a semitone higher than A=440 Hz respectively, were chosen because they may be used with harpsichords or chamber organs that transpose up or down a semitone from A=440. Additionally, the Esslingen fragment has turnings similar to the Göttingen recorder. These innovations allowed baroque recorders to possess a tone regarded as "sweeter" than that of the earlier instruments, at the expense of a reduction in volume, particularly in the lowest notes. , Some newer designs of recorder are now being produced. Historically, recorders were used to play vocal music and parts written for other instruments, or for a general instrument. In a final case, the pipes are parallel, in contact with each other, and differ in length. Nearly twice as many pieces have been written for the recorder since its modern revival as were written in all previous epochs. The player must adjust the position of the thumb for these notes to sound stably and in tune. In normal play, articulated attacks should align with the proper fingering, even in legato passages or in difficult finger transitions and the fingers move in the brief silence between the notes (silence d'articulation) created by the stoppage of the air by the tongue. MacMillan, D. (2007). , Today, a wide variety of hardwoods are used to make recorder bodies. Acoustically, its tone is relatively pure and, when the edge is positioned in the center of the Generally speaking, faster air in the windway produces a higher pitch. When a topic become too complex for Virdung to discuss briefly, he refers the reader to his lost larger work, an unhelpful practice for modern readers. Larger recorders may have a thumbrest, or a neckstrap for extra support, and may use a bocal to direct air from the player's mouth to the windway. At the most basic level, the fingering technique of the recorder involves the sequential uncovering of the holes from lowest to highest (i.e., uncovering 7, then uncovering 7 and 6, then uncovering 7, 6 and 5, etc.) He attributes the presence of notes not in the recorder's normal compass to Vivaldi's haste, noting that these notes do not appear in the solo sections. The earliest references are in John Lydgate's Temple of Glas (c.1430): These lytylle herdegromys Floutyn al the longe day..In here smale recorderys, In floutys. Loulié is unclear on why one would need two echo flutes to play strongly and weakly, and on why it is that echo flutes differ. Ons repertoire varieert van Renaissance tot Barok, van muziek die van oorspong vocaal is tot instrumentale muziek die voor blokfluit is geschreven, en tot kamermuziek die getransponeerd is voor blokfluit. Modern recorder parts are notated in the key they sound in. Dart did, however, bring to light numerous newspaper references to Paisible's performance on an "echo flute" between 1713 and 1718. In the early 20th century, Peter Harlan developed a recorder with apparently simpler fingering, called German fingering. Another suggestion, first proposed by Peter Thalheimer, is the "french" flageolet (see Flageolets below) in G5, which was notated in D4, appearing a fourth lower, possibly explaining the note in the margins of RV 443 and RV 445 (Gl'istromti transportati alla 4a) and supported by Bismantova (1677 rev. The recorders described in Praetorius are of the "stretched hourglass" profile (see above, far right). A recorder's pitch is also affected by the partial covering of holes. It was first described by Mersenne in Harmonie universelle (1636) as having four fingers on the front, and two thumb holes on the back, with lowest note C6 and a compass of two octaves. The pressure inside the bore is higher at the fourth hole than at the fifth, and decreases further at the 6th and 7th holes. A practice documented in many historical fingering charts is the use of finger seven or eight to support the recorder when playing notes for which the coverage of this hole negligibly affects the sounding pitch (e.g. Purcell, J. S. Bach, Telemann, and Vivaldi used the recorder to suggest shepherds and imitate birds in their music..  He has edited editions of RV 443 and RV 445 for soprano recorder in G major and E minor respectively.  Poet John Milton also referenced the recorder in his most famous work, the epic poem Paradise Lost published in 1667, in which the recently fallen angels in Hell "move / in perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood / of flutes and soft recorders," recalling both the affect of the Dorian mode as the mode of calling to action, and the use of flutes by the Spartans of ancient Greece, although the specification of the recorder is anachronistic in this context.. He is also the first writer to mention the recorder in D5 ("discantus"), which he leaves unnamed.  Thus, it is often necessary for a recorder player to produce long, controlled streams of air at a very low pressure. Because of this, recorders are popular in schools, as they are one of the cheapest instruments to buy in bulk.  Both instruments use fingerings of the makers' design. This instrument is absolutely new-in-the-box. , The earliest instruments were shaped like a walking stick with a mouthpiece in the handle and had no keys, although they could eventually have up to thirteen keys, along with a tuning slide and a device for narrowing the thumb hole. Groups of recorders played together are referred to as "consorts". Thus blowing harder causes a note it to go sharp whereas blowing the note gently causes it to go flat. This distinction, like the English switch from "recorder" to "flute," has caused confusion among modern editors, writers and performers. We repeteren eens in de 14 dagen op vrijdagmorgen van 10.00 - 12.00 uur in “het Brinkhuis” in Betondorp in Amsterdam. The pitch of these recorders is often generally grouped around A = 466 Hz, however little pitch standardization existed in the period. Anecdotally, Arnold Dolmetsch was motivated to make his own recorders after losing a bag containing his antique instruments.  While the iconographic criteria for a recorder are typically a clearly recognizable labium and a double handed vertical playing technique, such criteria are not prescriptive, and it is uncertain whether any of these depictions should be considered a single instrument, or constitute a kind of recorder. follows the exact size configuration suggested by Praetorius: stacked fifths up from the basset in F3, and down a fifth then a fourth to bass in B♭2 and great bass in F2. The other pitches are harmonics, or overtones. 1694) and Bonanni (1722) which equate flautino to the flageolet. A consort of recorders or similar make, marked "P.GRE/C/E," was donated to the Accademia in 1675, expanding the pair marked "C.RAFI". A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower. Feedback from the resonance of the tube regulates the pitch of the sound. Most of the surviving instruments from the period have a wide, cylindrical bore from the blockline to the uppermost fingerhole, an inverted conical portion down to around the lowest finger hole (the "choke"), then a slight flare to the bell. While most of the music attributed to the consort uses only a range of a thirteenth, it is possible that the Bassano's were familiar with Ganassi's extended range.. The shape of the vocal track affects the velocity and turbulence of the air entering the recorder. Starting in the 1530s, these languages began to add qualifiers to specify this particular flute.. The earliest surviving recorders of this type were made by the Rafi family, instrument makers active in Lyons in Southern France in the early 16th century. Marissen argues that Bach was not as consistent as Power asserts, and that Bach would have almost certainly had access to only altos in F. He corroborates this with examinations of pitch standards and notation in Bach's cantatas, in which the recorder parts are sometimes written as transposing instruments to play with organs that sounded as much as a minor third above written pitch. Probeer het nog eens. The attack of the note is governed by such factors as the pressure buildup behind the tongue and shape of the articulant, while the length of the note governed by the stoppage of the air by the tongue. The identification of the instrument depicted is further complicated by the symbolism of the aulos, a double piped instrument associated with the satyr Marsyas of Greek mythology. Recorders were probably first used to play vocal music, later adding purely instrumental forms such as dance music to their repertoire. Fontegara can be broadly divided into two parts: the first concerns the technique of playing the recorder, the second demonstrated divisions (regole, passagi, ornaments), some of great complexity, which the player may use to ornament a melody or, literally, "divide" it into smaller notes. Recorder making declined with the instrument's wane in the late 18th century, essentially severing the craft's transmission to the modern age. A recent innovation is the use of synthetic ceramics in the manufacture of recorder blocks. The first significant explanation for the recorder's decline was proposed by Waitzman (1967), who proposed six reasons: In the Baroque, the majority of professional recorder players were primarily oboists or string players. Flauto-Dolce Flauto Dolce Benaming voor de blokfluit Pageviews vandaag: 13. F3–C4–C4–G4, or play six-part music by doubling the upper size and tripling the middle size, e.g. In this case, a bocal may be used to allow the player to blow into the recorder while maintaining a comfortable hand position. Rare sizes and notations include the garklein, which may be notated two octaves below its sounding pitch, and the sub-contrabass, which may be notated an octave above its sounding pitch. Several changes in the construction of recorders took place in the 17th century, resulting in the type of instrument generally referred to as Baroque recorders, as opposed to the earlier Renaissance recorders. Dolmetsch introduced English fingering, the now standard fingering for "baroque" model instruments, and standardized the doubled 6th and 7th holes found on a handful of antique instruments by the English makers Stanesby and Bressan. These changes may be archetypal to those found on csakans and flageolets, and constitute an inchoate justification for the continuous development of the Baroque recorder into its 19th-century relatives.