On September 1, 1715, four days before his 77th birthday, Louis XIV died of gangrene at Versailles. Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.  Louis was able to capitalize on the widespread public yearning for law and order, that resulted from prolonged foreign wars and domestic civil strife, to further consolidate central political authority and reform at the expense of the feudal aristocracy. The reign of France’s Louis XIV (1638-1715), known as the Sun King, lasted for 72 years, longer than that of any other known European sovereign. Mazarin soon supported the Queen's position because he knew that her support for his power and his foreign policy depended on making peace with Spain from a strong position and on the Spanish marriage. French trading posts were also established in India, at Chandernagore and Pondicherry, and in the Indian Ocean at Île Bourbon. En tant que fidèle graveur des œuvres de son confrère catalan, Pierre Drevet est tout naturellement désigné pour mener à bien les burins et reçoit « parfait payement de cinq mille livres pour la graveure [sic] qu’il a faite du portrait en pied du feu roy Louis XIV, d’après le sieur Rigaud, pendant 1714-1715 ». Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments. Learn more. Buoyed by the victory of Louis, duc d’Enghien (later known as le Grand Condé) at the Battle of Lens, Mazarin, on Queen Anne's insistence, arrested certain members in a show of force.  "In one sense, Louis' childhood came to an end with the outbreak of the Fronde. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in 1684, reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.. In 1648 France was the leading European power, and most wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. This belief intensified the nobles' resentment.  Louis also received a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung, at Versailles in 1684. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI, with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne. Paris erupted in rioting as a result, and Anne was forced, under intense pressure, to free Broussel. All Rights Reserved. Furthermore, they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats (the Noblesse de Robe, or "nobility of the robe"), who administered the kingdom and on whom the monarchy increasingly began to rely. His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in 1700. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria. The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21,000 casualties, twice that of the French. ", It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule.. He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine, and La Fontaine, whose works remain influential to this day. Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. , Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration. On peut également trouver une copie à l'hôtel Negresco. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda. Une autre copie signée Alphonse Carrière est présente à l'Observatoire de Paris, entre deux portraits de Giovanni Domenico Cassini et Urbain Le Verrier. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport .  The royal family was driven out of Paris twice in this manner, and at one point Louis XIV and Anne were held under virtual arrest in the royal palace in Paris. It is now time that I govern them myself. If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades' effect (discussed below) led many states to abandon their alliance with France. Rigaud eut l’honneur de le commencer l’année suivante ; et étant achevé, ce monarque le trouva d’une ressemblance si parfaite et si magnifiquement décoré, qu’il lui ordonna d’en faire une copie de même grandeur, pour l’envoyer au roi d’Espagne, à la place de l’original. Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state)—composed of the king, the crown prince, the controller-general of finances, and the secretaries of state in charge of various departments. But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war known as the Fronde (after the slings used to smash windows) erupted in France. Roughly 1 million Huguenots lived in France at the time, and many were artisans or other types of skilled workers. To rectify the situation, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Controller-General of Finances in 1665. , In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early 1680s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late 1680s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe. With Fouquet dismissed, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties. D’ailleurs, le jeudi 19 janvier 1702, Rigaud sollicite une nouvelle séance de pose, comme en témoigne le marquis de Dangeau : « Le roi, qui n’avait point de conseil à tenir, eut le matin la patience de se faire achever de peindre chez madame de Maintenon par Rigaud ; il envoie ce portrait au roi d’Espagne, qui l’en avoit instamment prié ». Nevertheless, excellent results were achieved: the deficit of 1661 turned into a surplus in 1666. With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image. Maria Theresa died in 1683, whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. In 1669, Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy to revive the old Franco-Ottoman alliance. Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.  Louis tried to break up the alliance against him by dealing with individual opponents, but did not achieve his aim until 1696, when the Savoyards agreed to the Treaty of Turin and switched sides. In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France.  In desperation, Louis ordered a disastrous invasion of the English island of Guernsey in the autumn of 1704 with the aim of raiding their successful harvest. When the king died on May 14, 1643, 4-year-old Louis inherited the crown of a fractured, unstable and nearly insolvent France. During ...read more. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Fouquet appeared eager to succeed Mazarin and Richelieu in assuming power, and he indiscreetly purchased and privately fortified the remote island of Belle Île. The Cardinal depended totally on Anne's support and had to use all his influence on the Queen to avoid nullifying, but to restrain some of her radical actions. Drevet’s engraving exudes warmth: from the graceful play of light off the velvets and furs, to the heaviness of the fleur-de-lis embroidered drapery. Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, heir to the Spanish throne. Held the office of. It seems that Philip V had obtained satisfaction through the intercession of Madame de Maintenon, who in a letter to the Duke of Noailles, dated March 11, 1701 wrote: He brought the Académie Française under his patronage and became its "Protector". Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good. Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. Before the war, he worked to strengthen ties with Great Britain and Russia against the growing threat of ...read more, In December 1894, French officer Alfred Dreyfus was convicted of treason by a military court-martial and sentenced to life in prison for his alleged crime of passing military secrets to the Germans. Pierre Drevet (French, 1663-1738)after Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743) and Jean-Marc Nattier (French, 1685-1766). In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears. His choices were strategic and varied. He also attracted, supported and patronized such artists as André Charles Boulle, who revolutionised marquetry with his art of inlay, today known as "Boulle Work". Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies. As a further example of his continued care for the capital, Louis constructed the Hôtel des Invalides, a military complex and home to this day for officers and soldiers rendered infirm either by injury or old age. With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti. The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army. At the Palace of Versailles, aristocrats were expected to compete for the privilege of watching Louis XIV wake up, eat meals and prepare for bed. En 1733, il en note la rareté dans une lettre à Gabburri : « Pour ma part je peux vous inciter à acquérir un portrait du roi régnant et de la reine, mais celui gravé par Drevet est très difficile à avoir, et je l’ai vu en vente à plus de huit livres. ), READ MORE: 9 Things You May Not Know About Louis XIV. Shortly thereafter, the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia allowed Condé's army to return to aid Louis and his court. Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in 1691 and Namur in 1692. Among the better documented are Louise de La Vallière (with whom he had five children; 1661–67), Bonne de Pons d'Heudicourt (1665), Catherine Charlotte de Gramont (1665), Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan (with whom he had seven children; 1667–80), Anne de Rohan-Chabot (1669–75), Claude de Vin des Œillets (one child born in 1676), Isabelle de Ludres (1675–78), and Marie Angélique de Scorailles (1679–81), who died at age 19 in childbirth. Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises. Ce tableau a dix pieds et demi de haut ; il est placé à Versailles, dans la salle du Trône, et celui du roi d’Espagne dans le cabinet de Sa Majesté.  He encouraged leading nobles to live at Versailles. Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in 1660. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties. He also appointed himself patron of the Académie Française, the body that regulates the French language, and established various institutes for the arts and sciences. This required breaking up the Triple Alliance; he paid Sweden to remain neutral and signed the 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover with Charles, an Anglo-French alliance against the Dutch Republic. , Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. Information about image downloads and licensing is available here.  It is believed that they were married secretly at Versailles on or around 10 October 1683 or January 1684. Musée du Louvre, Paris. To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.. Le port de cette épée avec le manteau de sacre est une incongruité manifeste . The ensuing war, fought on both hemispheres, lasted from 1688 to 1697; France emerged with most of its territory intact but its resources severely strained. Based on the laws of primogeniture, France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris (a judicial body comprising mostly nobles and high clergymen). Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not.  Charles II acknowledged that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian.  Voltaire's history, The Age of Louis XIV, named Louis' reign as not only one of the four great ages in which reason and culture flourished, but the greatest ever. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military.. This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics. Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina (O Lord, make haste to help me). The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later. A conflict with Spain marked his entire childhood, while during his reign, the kingdom took part in three major continental conflicts, each against powerful foreign alliances: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. La goutte est venue à notre secours. , Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in 1690 and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in 1692, the Battle of Torroella in 1694 exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona. Indissociable de son portrait de Louis XIV en costume de sacre, Rigaud a côtoyé tous les grands ambassadeurs de son …  At other times, he would adopt mundane roles before appearing at the end in the lead role. Louis XIV’s act of religious zeal—advised, some have suggested, by the Marquise de Maintenon—had cost the country a valuable segment of its labor force while drawing the ire of its Protestant neighbors. Austria, ruled by the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, ceded all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace to France and acknowledged her de facto sovereignty over the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Verdun, and Toul. Held numerous offices, of which: Legitimised on 22 November 1681. In Brabant (the location of the land in dispute), children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property. The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly. It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing. " Louis is recorded by numerous eyewitnesses as having said on his deathbed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe. Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg, Charles II named the Archduke Charles as his sole heir.  The signatories, however, omitted to consult the ruler of these lands, and Charles II was passionately opposed to the dismemberment of his empire. : document utilisé comme source pour la rédaction de cet article. It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Just as the first Fronde (the Fronde parlementaire of 1648–1649) ended, a second one (the Fronde des princes of 1650–1653) began. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. In 1681, Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. Lorraine, which had been occupied by the French since 1670, was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold, albeit with a right of way to the French military. Protestants would be barred from assembling and their marriages would be deemed invalid. Both of these royal houses were descended in the male line from Henri II, Prince of Conde, a second cousin of French King Louis XIII (the father of Louis XIV) in the male line. The members refused to comply and ordered all of the king's earlier financial edicts burned. –, la couronne fermée, la main de justice, et il y apparaît comme hors du temps, dans une sorte d’éternité. French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI, to welcome tolerance in the form of the 1787 Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance. « Louis XIV en costume du sacre - 1701 », étude de Janine Vittori, Conseillère Pédagogique Départementale Arts visuels Haute-Corse, mars 2010, Département des peintures du musée du Louvre, Abrégé de la Vie de Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1716 sur Wikisource, Charles-Philippe de Chennevières-Pointel 1854, Étude d'un tableau : Louis XIV en costume de sacre, « De la gloire à l'émotion, Louis XIV en costume de sacre par Hyacinthe Rigaud. Unfortunately for Anne, her partial victory depended on Condé, who wanted to control the queen and destroy Mazarin's influence. Under pressure from the English, Swedish and especially the Dutch, France retreated and returned the region to Spain, gaining only some frontier towns in Flanders. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. Louis then sent another embassy in 1687, under Simon de la Loubère, and French influence grew at the Siamese court, which granted Mergui as a naval base to France. , Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Philip, Duke of Anjou, thus became Philip V, King of Spain.  The historian and philosopher Voltaire wrote: "His name can never be pronounced without respect and without summoning the image of an eternally memorable age". Il ne s’agit pas de la couronne du sacre mais peut-être de la couronne de vermeil plus légère réalisée en prévision des funérailles du roi. In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. Conseil des dépêches ("Council of Messages", concerning notices and administrative reports from the provinces). He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time. Pour ce faire, Drevet s’était aidé d’un dessin exécuté par le tout jeune Jean-Marc Nattier[n 1] et dont la direction des bâtiments relate le paiement, le 20 août 1713 : «20 aoust: au sr Nattier le jeune, peintre, pour le dessin d’un portrait du Roy d’après Rigaud, qu’il a copié pour servir de modèle pour graver en 1713, […] 500# [livres] ». Conseil de Conscience ("Council of Conscience", concerning religious affairs and episcopal appointments). He did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. He invited manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe to France, such as Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders. Numerous quotes have been attributed to Louis XIV by legend. During his visit from Rome, Bernini also executed a renowned portrait bust of the king. Drevet’s engraving exudes warmth: from the graceful play of light off the velvets and furs, to the heaviness of the fleur-de-lis embroidered drapery. (A number of illegitimate offspring resulted from Louis XIV’s affairs with a string of official and unofficial mistresses.  Under the influence of his very religious second wife, he became much stronger in the practice of his Catholic faith. After striking a deal with her old friend Marie de Rohan, who was able to impose the nomination of Charles de l'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf as minister of justice, Anne arrested Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, and the husband of their sister Anne Genevieve de Bourbon, duchess of Longueville. In 1648, Anne and Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris. Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. Born on September 5, 1638, to King Louis XIII of France (1601-1643) and his Habsburg queen, Anne of Austria (1601-1666), the future Louis XIV was his parents’ first child after 23 years of marriage; in recognition of this apparent miracle, he was christened Louis-Dieudonné, meaning “gift of God.” A younger brother, Philippe (1640-1701), followed two years later. Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that war was the ideal way to enhance his glory. Analyse de tableau : Portrait de Louis XIV en costume de sacre, par Hyacinthe Rigaud. William and Mary were recognised as joint sovereigns of the British Isles, and Louis withdrew support for James II. The principal taxes included the aides and douanes (both customs duties), the gabelle (a tax on salt), and the taille (a tax on land). Par son éclat et sa qualité, ce portrait s'est imposé comme le « portrait officiel » de Louis XIV. Later, after 1700, the French ministers who were supported by Louis' secret wife Madame De Maintenon, were able to convince the king to change his fiscal policy. Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous "Great Ordinances" he enacted. Louis XIV in fact commissioned the portrait as a gift for his grandson Philip V of Spain. digital representation of. . He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson. The War of the League of Augsburg, which lasted from 1688 to 1697, initiated a period of decline in Louis's political and diplomatic fortunes. For example, he patronised the arts, encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. , In 1848, at Nuneham House, a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt, Archbishop of York, was shown to the Dean of Westminster, William Buckland, who ate it.. But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him. By keeping him in his post, Anne was giving a sign that the interests of France and her son Louis were the guiding spirit of all her political and legal actions.  "The family home became at times a near-prison when Paris had to be abandoned, not in carefree outings to other chateaux but in humiliating flights". Le Siècle de Louis XIV; Usage on bs.wikipedia.org Historija Evrope; Usage on bxr.wikipedia.org This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan, superbly received at Versailles in 1686. Next, in 1684, a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars.  Then, in 1688, Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, Archbishop of Cologne, an ally of France, died. Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade.