Two of her children had issue. Died in childhood on the very day the Estates General convened. [59][60], Meanwhile, the queen began to institute changes in court customs. )[162], After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day. Il tasso di mortalità in Italia: 1946-2007 =9,...   Leggi di più, Biografieonline.it © 2003-2020 • La riproduzione dei testi è consentita citando la fonte secondo la Licenza Creative Commons At the death of her father-in-law Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia in 1773, her husband succeeded him as Victor Amadeus III. [195] She and her lawyers were given less than one day to prepare her defense. [138][139] Despite these dramatic changes, life at the court continued, while the situation in Paris was becoming critical because of bread shortages in September. With time, Mirabeau would support the queen, even more, going as far as to suggest that Louis XVI "adjourn" to Rouen or Compiègne. [24] Two days after the death of Louis XV in 1774, Louis XVI exiled du Barry to the Abbaye de Pont-aux-Dames in Meaux, pleasing both his wife and aunts. Operas by Baldassare Galuppi were specially composed for her marriage to the Duke of Savoy. Viene approvata la Costituzione dogmatica sulla divina Rivelazione, Dei Verbum, da parte del Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II. Some think that he invented it altogether. [121][122], On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. At the outset, the new queen had limited political influence with her husband, who, with the support of his two most important ministers, Chief Minister Maurepas and Foreign Minister Vergennes, blocked several of her candidates from assuming important positions, including Choiseul. Maria Antonietta fugge dal Petit Trianon, che non rivedrà più. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. Died in childhood; no issue. Esce il cortometraggio animato "Steamboat Willie", il primo cartone sonoro completamente sincronizzato, diretto da Walt Disney e Ub Iwerks, nel quale appaiono per la seconda volta Topolino e Minnie. Oh, allora sarò una sua rivale perché anch'io desidero fare piacere al re. [47] In a letter to his brother Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joseph II described them as "a couple of complete blunderers. Il tono appassionato della discussione risale agli accusatori. [citation needed] On 18 April, as the royal family prepared to leave for Saint-Cloud to attend Easter mass celebrated by a refractory priest, a crowd, soon joined by the Garde Nationale (disobeying Lafayette's orders), prevented their departure from Paris, prompting Marie Antoinette to declare to Lafayette that she and her family were no longer free. Il verdetto del processo a cui viene sottoposta è scontato: il 16 ottobre 1793 Maria Antonietta viene ghigliottinata. [64], Repayment of the French debt remained a difficult problem, further exacerbated by Vergennes and also by Marie Antoinette's prodding[citation needed] Louis XVI to involve France in Great Britain's war with its North American colonies. [91], On 27 April 1784, Beaumarchais's play The Marriage of Figaro premiered in Paris. A Jonestown (Guyana), Jim Jones guida il Tempio del popolo ad un suicidio di massa. [185][186], The queen, now called "Widow Capet", plunged into deep mourning. The first meeting took place on 22 February 1787, nine days after the death of Vergennes on 13 February. [133][136][137], The abolition of feudal privileges by the National Constituent Assembly on 4 August 1789 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen), drafted by Lafayette with the help of Thomas Jefferson and adopted on 26 August, paved the way to a Constitutional Monarchy (4 September 1791 – 21 September 1792). Luigi, erede al trono di Francia, è cresciuto diffidando degli austriaci, come la maggior parte dei suoi connazionali, ed è tutt'altro soddisfatto della decisione che suo nonno ha preso per lui. [25][26][27][28][29] Two and a half years later, at the end of October 1776, Madame du Barry's exile ended and she was allowed to return to her beloved château at Louveciennes, but she was never permitted to return to Versailles. Ci sono tantissime...   Leggi di più, Le emergenze sono l'autunno della ragione e non dico inverno perché s'é visto anche di peggio nella storia. [4] She was baptised with the names María Antonia along with Fernanda in honour of her half brother, then the heir to the throne. This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 14:51. [9] In Italy she was known as Maria Antonietta Ferdinanda. On the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable, and well-liked by the common people. Questa volta le donne parigine marciano su Versailles. That summer, the situation was compounded by multiple defeats of the French armies by the Austrians, in part because Marie Antoinette passed on military secrets to them. Vi resteranno, di fatto prigionieri, per 18 mesi, durante i quali la situazione peggiora di giorno in giorno. [11] The couple surrounded themselves with modern thinkers and various politicians. In primavera, mentre i sovrani sono ancora sconvolti dal dolore, la situazione politica precipita: i membri eletti degli Stati Generali costituiscono l'Assemblea Nazionale e, sfidando l'autorità assoluta del re, giurano di non sciogliersi finché la Francia non avrà ottenuto una costituzione. Some of them met with the disapproval of the older generation, such as the abandonment of heavy make-up and the popular wide-hooped panniers. [123], The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people,[124] who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis. Frattanto, la situazione finanziaria dello stato si fa sempre più grave. L'eroe nazionale svizzero Guglielmo Tell, secondo la leggenda medievale, colpisce con una freccia la mela tenuta da suo figlio sulla testa. Oh, allora sarò una sua rivale perché anch'io desidero fare piacere al re. She was the first queen of Sardinia in over thirty years since the death of Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine in 1741. She put on a plain white dress, white being the color worn by widowed queens of France. Dumouriez resigned and refused a post in any new government. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. [77] The entire Polignac family benefited greatly from royal favor in titles and positions, but its sudden wealth and lavish lifestyle outraged most aristocratic families, who resented the Polignacs' dominance at court, and also fueled the increasing popular disapproval of Marie Antoinette, mostly in Paris. Ma all'esterno il popolo di Parigi è in tumulto. [176] In August 1791, the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened an invasion of France. [98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. Ora non ci sono più dubbi sul fatto che sarà processato. In 1770 she was instrumental in ousting Étienne François, Duc de Choiseul, who had helped orchestrate the Franco-Austrian alliance and Marie Antoinette's marriage,[21] and in exiling his sister, the duchess de Gramont, one of Marie Antoinette's ladies-in-waiting. Some of her contemporaries, such as Thomas Jefferson, attributed to her the start of the French Revolution. [citation needed]. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker. [131][132] She and her court also adopted the English fashion of dresses made of indienne (a material banned in France from 1686 until 1759 to protect local French woolen and silk industries), percale and muslin. La notte del 20 giugno 1791 Maria Antonietta e la famiglia reale tentano la fuga, lasciando Parigi nel più gran segreto. Strict security measures were taken to assure that Marie Antoinette was not able to communicate with the outside world. Maria Antonietta riesce a fuggire attraverso un passaggio segreto, sottraendosi al linciaggio. Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day 1772. Several events were linked to Marie Antoinette during the Revolution after the government had placed the royal family under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace in October 1789. Se il popolo non l'ama, molti a corte la detestano, a causa dell'influenza che ha acquistato su Luigi XVI e del potere che gliene deriva. [212], For many revolutionary figures, Marie Antoinette was the symbol of what was wrong with the old regime in France. Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd. The royal family name was downgraded to the non-royal "Capets". After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded[citation needed] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly. [62] The new fashion called for a simpler feminine look, typified first by the rustic robe à la polonaise style and later by the gaulle, a layered muslin dress Marie Antoinette wore in a 1783 Vigée-Le Brun portrait. La famiglia reale viene portata nel Tempio, una fortezza medievale che diventa la sua prigione. Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. Papa Pio X pubblica la Lettera Enciclica Praestantia Scripturae Sacrae, sulla scomunica per coloro che contravvengono a quanto stabilito col decreto Lamentabili sane exitu e con l'enciclica Pascendi Dominici gregis. Operas by Baldassare Galuppi were specially composed for her marriage to the Duke of Savoy. Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes). [188] In April 1793, during the Reign of Terror, a Committee of Public Safety dominated by Robespierre was formed, and men such as Jacques Hébert began to call for Marie-Antoinette's trial. Ma deve inchinarsi alla ragione di stato, e sposare Maria Antonietta. Nel 1781 arriva anche il sospirato erede maschio. Il 18 dicembre 1778, dà alla luce una bambina. [Le uniche parole rivolte, sotto costrizione, a Madame Du Barry il 1° gennaio 1772]. Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. Nothing now can hurt me. [82], Around this time, pamphlets describing farcical sexual deviance including the Queen and her friends in the court were growing in popularity around the country. While some advocated her death, others proposed exchanging her for French prisoners of war or for a ransom from the Holy Roman Emperor. [158][159], Upon learning of the capture of the royal family, the National Constituent Assembly sent three representatives, Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve and Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg to Varennes to escort Marie Antoinette and her family back to Paris. Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain (María Antonia Fernanda; 17 November 1729 – 19 September 1785[1]) was a Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia. While Barnave's faction had dropped to 120 members, the new Girondin majority controlled the legislative assembly with 330 members. In questo modo, firma la condanna a morte della monarchia. Battezzata Maria Antonia Giuseppa Giovanna, in famiglia e a corte sarebbe stata chiamata Antoine.Sarebbero stati i francesi, in seguito, a chiamarla Marie-Antoinette. Nel 1774, Luigi XV è colpito dal vaiolo. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name: Marie Antoinette. Intanto, Maria Antonietta in segreto chiede aiuto ai sovrani stranieri, sperando di intimidire i radicali con la minaccia di un intervento armato. The continued poor financial climate of the country resulted in the 25 May dissolution of the Assembly of Notables because of its inability to function, and the lack of solutions was blamed on the queen. Continuing deterioration of the financial situation despite cutbacks to the royal retinue and court expenses ultimately forced the king, the queen and the Minister of Finance, Calonne, at the urging of Vergennes, to call a session of the Assembly of Notables, after a hiatus of 160 years. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him. She blamed him for his support of the Revolution and did not regret his resignation in 1790.[143][144]. Il presidente statunitense Ronald Reagan firma una legge che prevede la pena di morte per i trafficanti di droga responsabili di omicidio. [3] She spent her infancy in the city of her birth before moving to Madrid in 1733. She has been the subject of a number of books, films, and other media. Pardon, Monsieur. [11][4], Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician. Nella disgrazia, Luigi XVI e Maria Antonietta si riavvicinano. [192] She was attended by Rosalie Lamorlière, who took care of her as much as she could. • A Parigi va in scena la prima rappresentazione teatrale de "Le preziose ridicole", commedia di successo di Molière. [219], In the United States, expressions of gratitude to France for its help in the American Revolution included naming a city Marietta, Ohio in 1788. The "Carnation Plot" (Le complot de l'œillet), an attempt to help her escape at the end of August, was foiled due to the inability to corrupt all the guards. Those on music, often dedicated to her, were the most read, though she also liked to read history. Her husband outlived her by eleven years. Così, quando Maria Antonietta ordina la costruzione di un costosissimo villaggio con otto cottage e una fattoria nei suoi giardini privati al Trianon, il risentimento nei suoi confronti raggiunge l'acme, rendendola il capro espiatorio di tutti i problemi del paese. Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape. The two strongest members of that government were Jean Marie Roland, who was minister of interior, and General Dumouriez, the minister of foreign affairs. She was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. Louis XVI allowed Marie Antoinette to renovate it to suit her own tastes; soon rumors circulated that she had plastered the walls with gold and diamonds. The new Duc d'Orléans publicly protested the king's actions, and was subsequently exiled to his estate at Villers-Cotterêts. [182][183], On 21 September 1792, the fall of the monarchy was officially declared and the National Convention became the governing body of the French Republic. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution. [16][17] The couple's longtime failure to consummate the marriage plagued the reputations of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the next seven years. Alla corte di Parigi si mormora, infatti, che Maria Antonietta pensi solo a divertirsi, trascurando i propri doveri matrimoniali. A significant achievement of Marie Antoinette in that period was the establishment of an alliance with Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, the most important lawmaker in the assembly. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success. Others involved were Nicole Lequay, alias Baronne d'Oliva, a prostitute who happened to look like Marie Antoinette; Rétaux de Villette, a forger; Alessandro Cagliostro, an Italian adventurer; and the Comte de La Motte, Jeanne de Valois' husband. [223], Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, Articles and topics related to Marie Antoinette, Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Significant civil and political events by year, Motherhood, changes at court, intervention in politics (1778–81), Prelude to the Revolution: scandals and the failure of reforms (1786–89), Failure of political and financial reforms, French Revolution before Varennes (1789–91), Flight, arrest at Varennes and return to Paris (21–25 June 1791), Radicalization of the Revolution after Varennes (1791–92), Events leading to the abolition of the monarchy on 10 August 1792, harvnb error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFFraser2002 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLever2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPierre_NolhacLa_Dauphine_Marie_Antoinette,1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNolhac1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAlfred_et_Geffroy_D'ArnethCorrespondance_Secrete_entre_Marie-Therese_et_le_Comte_de_Mercy-Argenteau,_vol_31874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCronin1974 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFALfred_and_Geffroy_d'Arneth1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJackes_LevronMadame_du_Barry1973 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEvelyne_LeverMarie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_ii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeverMarie_Antoinette_1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_i1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoward_Patricia,_Gluck1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geoffroy,_iii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice_MunroPreserving_the_Monarchy:_The_Comte_de_Vergennes,_1774–17871995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLettres_de_Marie_AntoinetteLe_Marquis_de_Beaucourt1895Vol_ii (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLever,_Marie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunro_PriceThe_Road_to_Versailles2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZweig_StephanMarie_Antoinette1938 (, Farr, Evelyn, Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen: Untold Love Story, Hunt, Lynn. Meglio perire che essere salvati da Monsieur de Lafayette! Dopo otto anni di matrimonio, e quando Luigi si è finalmente sottoposto ad un'operazione chirurgica, Maria Antonietta rimane incinta. [2] She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. On the advice of Mercy, Marie Antoinette opened secret negotiations with him and both agreed to meet privately at the château de Saint-Cloud on 3 July 1790, where the royal family was allowed to spend the summer, free of the radical elements who watched their every move in Paris. [141] She also played an important political, albeit not public, role between 1789 and 1791 when she had a complex set of relationships with several key actors of the early period of the French Revolution. Il 2 novembre 1755 l'imperatrice d'Austria Maria Teresa d'Asburgo dà alla luce il suo quindicesimo figlio: una bella bambina che battezza Maria Antonia. Throughout her imprisonment and up to her execution, Marie Antoinette could count on the sympathy of conservative factions and social-religious groups which had turned against the Revolution, and also on wealthy individuals ready to bribe republican officials to facilitate her escape;[187] These plots all failed. [163][164], On 17 July 1791, with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king. One that was actually hers, to then have the authority to bequeath it to "whichever of my children I wish"; choosing the child she thought could use it rather than it going through patriarchal inheritance laws or whims. Marie Antoinette feared that the death of her mother would jeopardize the Franco-Austrian alliance (as well as, ultimately, herself), but her brother, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, wrote to her that he had no intention of breaking the alliance. Variations in her name range from "Antonia Fernanda" and "Antonietta Ferdinanda". Her mother consented to the latter union but insisted on waiting for Maria Antonia Ferdinanda to reach a more mature age. Her head was affixed on a pike and paraded through the city to the Temple for the queen to see. [96] The fact that the birth occurred exactly nine months after Fersen's return did not escape the attention of many, leading to doubt as to the parentage of the child and to a noticeable decline of the queen's reputation in public opinion. [citation needed], Barnave had advised the queen to call back Mercy, who had played such an important role in her life before the Revolution, but Mercy had been appointed to another foreign diplomatic position[where?] Non l'ho fatto apposta. Nell'aprile del 1770, lascia per sempre l'Austria alla volta della Francia, dove diverrà Maria Antonietta. [5] As a daughter of the King of Spain, she held the title of Infanta of Spain and style of Royal Highness. Papa Bonifacio VIII emana la bolla papale Unam Sanctam, che gli storici considerano una delle più estreme dichiarazioni della superiorità spirituale del Papa. [201] Her will was part of the collection of papers of Robespierre found under his bed and were published by Edme-Bonaventure Courtois. Maria Antonietta viene trasferita alla Conciergerie, la prigione tristemente nota per ospitare i condannati a morte prima della ghigliottina. [189] Calls were also made to "retrain" the eight-year-old Louis XVII, to make him pliant to revolutionary ideas. Unlike her husband, who had been taken to his execution in a carriage (carrosse), she had to sit in an open cart (charrette) for the hour it took to convey her from the Conciergerie via the rue Saint-Honoré thoroughfare to reach the guillotine erected in the Place de la Révolution (the present-day Place de la Concorde). "[191] This was the most difficult period of her captivity. Through her son Victor Emmanuel I and daughter Maria Teresa of Savoy, she is a double ancestress of Queen Anne of Romania as well as the pretending Duke of Parma, Emperor of Austria and reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg. One of the most important was Necker, the Prime Minister of Finances (Premier ministre des finances). Non dimenticherò mai che voi siete il fautore della mia felicità! [148] An agreement was reached turning Mirabeau into one of her political allies: Marie Antoinette promised to pay him 6000 livres per month and one million if he succeeded in his mission to restore the king's authority. As these attacks increased, they were connected with the public's dislike of her association with the rival nation of Austria. In an elaborate attempt known as the Flight to Varennes to reach the royalist stronghold of Montmédy, some members of the royal family were to pose as the servants of an imaginary "Mme de Korff", a wealthy Russian baroness, a role played by Louise-Élisabeth de Croÿ de Tourzel, governess of the royal children. It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation. [167] This situation lasted until the spring of 1792. To carry this out, Louis Charles was separated from his mother on 3 July after a struggle during which his mother fought in vain to retain her son, who was handed over to Antoine Simon, a cobbler and representative of the Paris Commune. [114], The queen attempted to fight back with propaganda portraying her as a caring mother, most notably in the painting by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun exhibited at the Royal Académie Salon de Paris in August 1787, showing her with her children. He had joined the Third estate and was not against the monarchy, but wanted to reconcile it with the Revolution. Però, ci...   Leggi di più, Buonasera sig. The assembly was held for the purpose of initiating necessary financial reforms, but the Parlement refused to cooperate. Anche l'amicizia con la sua dama di compagnia diviene uno dei pettegolezzi preferiti a corte: la loro intimità, unitamente al mancato arrivo di un erede, alimenta le dicerie sui suoi costumi. Their common desire to destroy the ambitions of Prussia and Great Britain and to secure a definitive peace between their respective countries led them to seal their alliance with a marriage: on 7 February 1770, Louis XV formally requested the hand of Maria Antonia for his eldest surviving grandson and heir, Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry and Dauphin of France. Il 1 luglio la regina viene separata dal figlio, rinchiuso in un'altra parte della prigione. Il suo futuro sarà legato alle alternanze del potere politico in Europa: il re di Prussia, nemico degli Asburgo, firma un trattato con l'Inghilterra; in risposta, l'imperatrice Maria Teresa si prepara a stringere un'alleanza con il re di Francia. There were even cheers for the queen, particularly when she presented the Dauphin to the public.[150][151]. She was Louis XV's mistress and had considerable political influence over him. Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November 1791. [2] As a wedding gift, the apartments of the new Duchess of Savoy at the Royal Palace of Turin were remodelled by the architect Benedetto Alfieri. A constitutional priest was assigned to her to hear her final confession. The estimated number of those killed varies between 12 and 50. This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April 1792, which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August 1792, which ended the monarchy. It was publicly suggested that her supposed behavior was learned at the court of the rival nation, particularly lesbianism, which was known as the "German vice". Il delfino, ora re con il nome di Luigi XVI, si adopera per soddisfare le richieste della moglie, alla quale permette di vivere da sola nel Petit Trianon, nei giardini di Versailles. The Brunswick Manifesto, issued on 25 July 1792, triggered the events of 10 August[178] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly. Mirabeau sincerely wanted to reconcile the queen with the people, and she was happy to see him restoring much of the king's powers, such as his authority over foreign policy, and the right to declare war. A second daughter, her last child, Marie Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Madame Sophie, was born on 9 July 1786 and lived only eleven months until 19 June 1787. The match was seen as unpopular, but the two remained close until her death. On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. Il re di Francia Luigi XVI viene ghigliottinato il 21 gennaio 1793. ), who was adopted in 1790 along with her two older sisters when her parents, an usher and his wife in service of the king, had died. Even the king, who had been hesitant, accepted his wife's decision to flee with the help of foreign powers and counter-revolutionary forces. Empress Maria Theresa died on 29 November 1780 in Vienna. [7][53][54] The child's paternity was contested in the libelles, as were all her children's. [8][4][5][9] Despite the private tutoring she received, the results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. [115][116] Around the same time, Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy escaped from prison and fled to London, where she published damaging slander concerning her supposed amorous affair with the queen. [140], Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children. Transferred to the La Force prison, after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. [12] She was very religious and was said to have a cold, shy personality. Despite these measures, several of her guards were open to bribery and a line of communication was kept with the outside world. It was proposed that the cost could be covered by other sales, such as that of the château Trompette in Bordeaux. [117], The political situation in 1787 worsened when, at Marie Antoinette's urging, the Parlement was exiled to Troyes on 15 August. Maria Antonia spent her formative years between the Hofburg Palace and Schönbrunn, the imperial summer residence in Vienna,[4] where on 13 October 1762, when she was seven, she met Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, two months her junior and a child prodigy. Incautamente, mentre a Parigi infuria la rivolta, il duca di Bruswick, comandante delle truppe prussiane, minaccia l'invasione e la distruzione di Parigi nel caso in cui qualcuno attenti alla vita del re e della regina. The moderate government collapsed in April 1792 to be replaced by a radical majority headed by the Girondins. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in 1792. Preparations began for the trial of the king in a court of law. As the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and took the Tennis Court Oath, and as people either spread or believed rumors that the queen wished to bathe in their blood, Marie Antoinette went into mourning for her eldest son.

maria antonietta riassunto

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